The Islamic Architecture Mosque is worth exploring since the Muslim population grows with the spread of Islam around the world, which leads to a growing demand for Islamic buildings such as mosques and Islamic centers. Mosques play an essential role in Islam and Muslim life.
For obvious reasons, the Islamic Architecture Mosque occupies the central place in Islam. It represents the symbol of Islam. This symbolic role was understood by Muslims at a very early stage and played an important role in creating suitable visible signs for the building: the Minaret, the dome, the mihrab, or the minibar.
Prophet’s House In Medina
The first mosque in Islam was the courtyard of the Prophet’s house in Medina, devoid of any architectural refinement. The early mosques built by Muslims as their empire expanded were of great simplicity. From those first buildings, the Friday mosque was developed, whose indispensable elements have remained unaffected for almost 1500 solid years.
The Friday mosque general arrangement consists of a big courtyard enclosed by arcaded galleries, the numbers of arcades of which are higher on the area facing Mecca compared to the other sides. The Umayyad Great Mosque of Damascus, whose plan and arrangement is inspired by the famous Prophet’s mosque, became the first of its kind of many Islamic architecture mosques built in various parts of the Islamic world.
Islamic Architecture Mosque In Anatolia And Ottoman
Two other types of mosques were developed in Anatolia and later in the Ottoman domains: the basilica mosque and the domed mosque. The first typology consists of a simple basilica or column room inspired by the late Roman and Byzantine Syrian traditions, introduced with certain modifications during the 5th / 11th century. In the second typology, which was developed during the Ottoman period, this Islamic architecture mosque interior space is organized under a single dome.
Ottoman architects created in the magnificent imperial mosques a new style of domed construction! It is fusing the tradition of the Islamic mosque with domed buildings in Anatolia. The central dome rests on a hexagonal plan structure, while smaller domes cover the lateral bays. This emphasis on creating an interior space dominated by a single dome became the starting point for a style that was to spread in the 10th / 16th century.
During this period, mosques became multifunctional social complexes, consisting of a zawiya, madrasa, public kitchen. And again, hot springs, a caravansary, and a mausoleum dedicated to the founder. The most important monument of this typology is the Sülaymeniye Islamic architecture mosque in Istanbul, built in 965/1557 by the great architect Sinán.
Islamic Architecture Mosque From Which The Muezzin Calls Muslims
The Minaret from which the muezzin calls Muslims to salat is the mosque’s most prominent sign. The traditional Minaret in Syria is a tower built of stone. Also, the Minarets of Mamluk Egypt are divided into three parts: a tower with a square plan at the bottom, an intermediate section with an octagonal plan, and a cylindrical upper part finished off by a small dome. The Minarets of Mamluk central structure is richly adorned, and again, the body transition zone between the various sections is covered with an ornamental strip of muqarnas.
Spanish and the North African minarets, which share the square tower with the Syrians, are decorated with panels of ornamental motifs arranged around twin windows. During the Ottoman period, the square towers were replaced by octagonal and cylindrical minarets. They tend to be pointy minarets of great height and, although mosques usually only have a single Minaret, in the most important cities, they can have two, four, or even six.
Islamic Architecture Mosque To Madrasas
It seems likely that it was the Seljuks who built the first madrasas in Persia in the early 5th / 11th century when they were small buildings with a central domed hall and two side iwans. Later, a typology was developed with an open patio and a central iwan surrounded by galleries. During the 6th / 12th century in Anatolia, the madrasa was altered and metamorphosed into a dynamic structure. And again, the madrasa also served as a psychiatric hospital, medical school, hospice with a mausoleum, and dining rooms.
The spread of Islam reached a new peak moment in Syria and Egypt under the reign of the Zenyies and Ayyubids (6th/12th centuries p. VII/XIII). It led to the appearance of the madrasa founded by a civic or political leader in the interest of developing Islamic jurisprudence. The foundation was followed by granting a financial endowment in perpetuity, the income from some land, or property. That is, in the form of a Pomar, some shops in some market (suq) or some hot springs (hammam).
The structure soon turned the leading architectural form, from which the mosques adopted the policy of four iwans. Subsequently, it lost the exclusive function of teaching Islam, and politics as an instrument of propaganda, beginning to assume broader civic roles, such as a mosque and mausoleum in honor of the benefactor. The construction of madrasas in Egypt and especially in Cairo gained new momentum with the arrival of the Mamluks!
Islamic Architecture Mosques Iwan Replaced By The Domed Room
The typical Cairota madrasa from this period consisted of a gigantic building with four iwans, a splendid portal of muqarnas (muqarnas), and beautiful facades. With the seizure of power by the Ottomans in the 10th/16th century, the double joint foundations, the typical Islamic architecture mosques-madrasas, spread in the form of great ensembles that enjoyed imperial patronage. The iwan gradually disappeared, replaced by the domed room. The substantial increase in the number of domed student cells is one of the elements that characterize the Ottoman madrasas.
One of the several types of buildings that can be related to the madrasa by both its function and its shape is the Janqa. This term, rather than a specific kind of structure, refers to an institution that houses some Muslim members’ group. Historians have as well used the following terms as synonyms for Jana: in the Maghreb, zawiya; in the Ottoman world, tekke; and generally ribat.
Sufism permanently dominated the use of the Jana that starts in the eastern part of Persia in the 10th century. In its purest form, the Janga was a house where a group of disciples gathered around a teacher and was equipped with facilities for holding meetings, performing salat, and community life.
Lastly, In general terms, Islamic architecture can be classified into two categories: buildings intended for the practices and teachings of Islam: as is the case with Islamic architecture mosques, madrasas and mausoleums, and those related to political, economic, palaces, etc.